Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH):
This hormone is responsible for the growth of the ovarian follicles, which produces estrogen and progesterone to maintain a normal menstrual cycle. An increased FSH may indicate a decline in fertility. Low FSH may indicate a woman’s not producing eggs.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH):
This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland and in women the LH levels change with age and throughout the menstrual cycle. It also changes during pregnancy. Increased levels during the menstrual cycle indicates onset of ovulation within 1-2 days. LH levels normally rise after menopause indicating that the ovaries are no longer functioning.
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH):
Low thyroid levels can potentially cause irregular menstrual cycles and therefore interfere with ovulation and conception. For this reason, the TSH level can be valuable in the evaluation of fertility.
In primary hypothyroidism, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels are elevated. In primary hyperthyroidism, TSH levels are low. The ability to quantitative circulating levels of TSH is important in evaluating thyroid function. It is especially useful in the differential diagnosis of primary (thyroid) from secondary (pituitary) and tertiary (hypothalamus) hypothyroidism. In primary hypothyroidism, TSH levels are significantly elevated, while in secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism, TSH levels are low or normal.
Elevated or low TSH in the context of normal free thyroxine is often referred to as subclinical hypo- or hyperthyroidism, respectively.
Testosterone is produced in the ovaries and adrenals and in women play a role in a healthy libido and fertility. Testosterone can increase during mid cycle to increase libido during this ovulation and conception time period. Testing the testosterone level can be helpful in the evaluation of fertility.
Estradiol acts mainly as a growth hormone for the reproductive structures in females. In conjunction with progesterone, estradiol is involved with the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. Low levels can cause diminished sex drive. Estradiol has a significant role in maintaining healthy bone growth and improved blood flow in coronary arteries in addition to offering neuroprotective effects. Estrogen have been known to contribute to risk of breast cancer as well as some non cancerous conditions like endometriosis and uterine fibroids.